What Causes Cataracts And What Are The Treatment Options

The purpose of your lens is to focus light onto your retina and help you see clearly.

When your cataract develops, it becomes harder for light to pass through the center of your lens and focus properly on your retina. This causes images to appear blurry, dim, or foggy.

Here is what you need to know about cataract surgery near me.

What’s Cataract?

A Cataract is the clouding of the eye’s lens. It is one of the most common causes of vision loss, which occurs when the lens proteins become damaged or clump together. As these proteins clump together, they block light from passing through the lens and reaching the retina at the back of your eye. The cataract can make it difficult for a person to see or completely block the view to the point where they can’t read or see. Cataracts can affect both children and adults. However, it affects older people more. Causes of cataracts include:

  • Aging – Most people with cataracts are over 60, but some younger people may also be affected.
  • Family history – If you have a family history of cataracts and your parents were both diagnosed with them, there is a good chance that you will develop them too.
  • Diabetes – This condition can cause high blood sugar levels in your body, which may lead to cataracts forming
  • Smoking-Tobacco smoking can damage your eyes and may increase your risk of developing cataracts.
  • Cataracts due to injury-Cataracts can be caused by damage to one or both eyes. This can happen immediately following an injury or years later.

Types of Cataracts

1.   Nuclear Cataract

Nuclear cataracts are caused by a lens nucleus (the center) problem. These tend to be more common in older people and affect one eye at a time. In the beginning, a nuclear cataract can make you more nearsighted or help you read more clearly. As time goes by, the lens becomes increasingly yellow and obscures your vision.

Sometimes, the lens may even turn brown as the cataract progresses. When the lens becomes increasingly yellow or brown, it can be difficult to tell what color it is.

2.   cortical cataracts (Edge-of-lens cataracts)

On the outside edge of the lens cortex, cortical cataracts appear as white wedge-shaped opacities. The streaks slowly reach the center of the lens and interfere with the passage of light through it.

3.   Back-Of-The-Lens Cataracts (Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts).

A posterior subcapsular cataract begins as a small, opaque area forming in the path of light at the back of the lens. Several side effects are associated with posterior subcapsular cataracts, including reading problems, glare, and halos around lights at night. Back of the lens cataract tend to advance more rapidly than other types.

4.   Congenital Cataracts

Cataracts may occur at birth or during childhood for some people. It may be inherited or caused by trauma or infection within the womb. When congenital cataracts impair vision, they are usually removed the moment they’re detected.

Symptoms Of Cataract

A cataract in its advanced stages can give the appearance of a light grey pupil instead of a black one. The type of cataracts determines how quickly you will experience symptoms and how severe they are.

Symptoms include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Difficulty reading fine details such as newspaper print or a computer screen
  • Colored halos around lights (this may look like a rainbow)
  • Difficulty seeing clearly at night
  • Colour blindness (the loss of blue and yellow colors)
  • Sensitivity to bright light

What Are The Treatment Options For Cataracts?

The type and severity of your cataract should be considered when developing your cataract treatment plan. A cataract can be treated non-surgically or surgically to improve vision deterioration symptoms.

Some lifestyle changes may delay the need for cataract surgery by improving vision enough to make everyday activities, such as driving, watching TV,  or reading easier. However, surgery is always recommended when vision loss interferes with these activities. It is very important, however, that you include proper counseling regarding the effects of reduced vision in your cataract treatment plan.

Non-Surgical Treatment

With the right eyeglass, magnifying lenses, or sunglasses, you can reduce the symptoms of cataracts. Certain tints and coatings can also be added to your lenses to make them more comfortable.

If you must spend time outside, wear a hat and quality sunglasses to reduce cataract symptoms. Better placement of reading lights or lampstands also helps.

Surgical Treatment

As a cataract progresses and decreases vision, it can interfere with your daily routine and lifestyle. Surgery is the only effective treatment if non-surgical measures do not work.

Artificial lenses are used in cataract surgery to replace clouded lenses. Cataract surgery is often recommended when corrected vision is 20/40 or worse. An individual with 20/40 vision has a reduced ability to perform day-to-day activities.

For cataract surgery, your doctor will work on one eye at a time. As a result, it minimizes potential complications. Local anesthesia is used during cataract surgery at an outpatient surgical center. After surgery, your doctors will release you immediately.

You will be instructed to wear an eye patch the first night after surgery to protect your eyes. Also, wear a nightguard patch for several nights following your first postoperative visit. Take it easy for a week after surgery and avoid heavy lifting. You will also need to take postoperative medications for three to four weeks following surgery.

Common Methods Of Cataract Surgery Near Me


A phacoemulsification procedure (phaco) involves inserting an ultrasonic device through a very tiny incision into the eye to remove cataracts. The lens is softened and broken up using ultrasound waves, allowing suctioning.

The surgeon then inserts into the eye a synthetic lens. Depending on the incision type, a single stitch (or none) may close the wound.

Extracapsular Cataract Surgery

This procedure is similar to phacoemulsification, except they make a large incision so that the lens and its nucleus (or center part) can be removed as one piece. To close the wound, the wound will require several sutures because the incision is large.

Intracapsular Cataract Surgery

This surgery allows the surgeon to remove the entire lens and capsule through a single large incision. It’s reserved for extremely advanced cataract formation or trauma.


Once the clouding of the eye lens is complete, it becomes a cataract. Successful surgical removal of a cataract that has progressed to this stage leads to an excellent visual outcome with no disability.